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Standards in the warez scene are defined by groups of people who have been involved in its activities for several years and have established connections to large groups. These people form a committee, which creates drafts for approval of the large groups. In organized warez distribution, all releases must follow these predefined standards to become accepted material. The standards committee usually cycles several drafts and finally decides which is best suited for the purpose, and then releases the draft for approval. Once the draft has been signed by several bigger groups, it becomes ratified and accepted as the current standard. There are separate standards for each category of releases.

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An overview of these rules can be found here

If you’re a hardcore scener, you can probably leave this thread right now, there’s no use in reading the following paragraphs. However, there are also many people who are not so familiar with a scene slang and that’s why I’ve decided to collect a list of most common nuke reasons and explain them for you. This way, you will always know what to expect from a release which is nuked.

General DELPRE reasons

pre.spam
Any abuse of the prebots is considered prespam. For example adding fake releases or putting out personal messages (HELLO.WORLD-SCC etc)

cut.echo
Relaying pre’s all depends on well configured filters. For example releases by the group VH-PROD often get cut. If you look at the default naming of movie releases the groupname always follows after the first – for example HELLO.WORLD-VH-PROD. Since this group uses a – in their name misconfigured bots will pass on the release as HELLO.WORLD.XVID-VH leaving out the -PROD. THis is one example of a cut echo.

General NUKE reasons

missing.region.info.or.tag
For some releases it’s mandatory to list which region the material is from either in the dirname of the release or in the nfo.

selfmade.compilations.not.allowed
Generally nothing selfmade is allowed. For example music (best of) compilations or collections of classic games which are not available for sale. This to ensure quality and keep the amount of duplicate material at bay.

internal.shields.dupe.only
The effects of the “INTERNAL” tag are a general misconception. This tag is supposed to be used for rereleases of popular old titles according to todays standards. It can also be used when the original release is of bad quality. Quality isn’t a legit reason to nuke a release as long as all rules were applied correctly. This is when an INTERNAL copy can be released. The original release wont be nuked this way. It only prevents releases from being nuked for being a dupe. All other rules should be applied. *INTERNAL release aren’t allowed on the majority of sites (because they are dupes by default) This is what makes them so rare.

stolen.from.p2p
lately a very popular and common nuke reason. This basically means that the scene group which pred the release stole it from another source – specifically a peer to peer network (p2p) in this case. In most cases, this means a private BitTorrent tracker, DC hub or webblog which obtained and released the copy of a title faster than any other scene source. This nuke reason will not affect your viewer�s experience and many sceners consider it useless as we basically steal the movies anyway.

stolen.src
stolen source. Similar or same as the above nuke reason. Scene groups can steal the video or audio also from each other, apart from stealing from peer to peer networks.

dupe
dupe means simply a dupe. The nuked release was already released by another group earlier, so the nuked one is basically useless, doubled. This doesn�t really matter if you don�t care about the strict scene rules.

undersized
a release is nuked for being undersized when it doesn�t fully use the capacity of one or two CDs. This means that the final rip is for example 680 MB, while it could be 700 MB and offer a better quality of image and audio. Once again, this is not a serious deal unless it�s undersized by hundreds of megabytes.

oversized
guess what.

mislabeled
a release trying to look like a better quality rip. A good example would be an R5 rip from Russian video source released as dvdrip – the difference isn�t that big in this case and scene groups always get more props for releasing dvdrips. The another case can be a typo or wrong year in the release name.

grp.req
a nuke requested by the release group. Happens when a scene group releases something and realize it�s completely wrong, not working or simply bad, so they request a nuke.

bad.pack
bad packing. The group didn�t pack their release properly, according to scene rules. This means they either forgot to pack it into 15/20/50 MB RARs or it�s completely impossible to unpack it.

compression.used/m0
One mistake often made when packing releases is the use of the wrong compression mode when creating the archives. Depending of the files inside the archives there might or might not be use for compression. For example an already compressed (XViD) movie wont decrease in size while compressing a raw image will decrease by 50% or more in size. ISO’s of (console) games often contain text files and images which can be compressed. This is why each section has a rule on using m0 (no compression just “storing” the files inside archives) or m1 (minor compression). The higher the level of compression the longer it takes to compress and decompress the archives.

invalid.proper
proper is a release fixing other, previously nuked release. When a certain group releases proper and the first release is actually fine, the new one becomes nuked for invalid proper.

Foreign NUKE reasons

Season.shield
A nukereason seen in the german TV scene where the group that pres the first episode of a season gets to pre every following ep that season. If another group pres an episode of the shielded season it will get nuked. (yes … retarded)

Movie NUKE reasons based on TDX 2005.

bad.res
bad image resolution. The scene rules define allowed image resolutions and their aspect ratios. If a movie doesn�t fit in these rules, it means the image will be probably malformed in a certain way. Many advanced video players allow to change the image resolution, so this can be sometimes fixed at your computer.

bad.ar
bad aspect ratio. A similar reason to the above one. Each video was originally filmed and released in a specific aspect ratio (horizontal vs. vertical side). The most common AR is 2.35:1 which is for example a resolution of 640×272 pixels. Bad aspect ratio leads to inproportional image, where characters appear to be either too wide or, more often, too tall. This can be also fixed with some media players.

bad.crop, overcropped
movies on DVD contain black parts of the image above and below the actual video. In order to decrease the final size and offer the best possible quality, these black parts must be removed before encoding and releasing in xvid. Sometimes, scene groups don�t properly remove / crop these parts and it means that the image misses top or bottom part, therefore you don�t see the whole scene. Cropping is often used also for removing watermarks or hardcoded subtitles, but it still means a serious loss of the image. The other, not so common extreme, is when a group forgets to remove these black boxes.

bad.ivtc, no.ivtc
quite a common nuke reason which affects mostly lower-quality releases. IVTC means inverse telecine and it�s basically a process of converting a movie (usually PAL) with high FPS (30 frames per second) to lower FPS (for example 24) in order to save space and offer better image quality. This conversion often goes wrong (bad.ivtc) or completely lacks (no.ivtc, lazy sceners)). As a result, the image appears to be jerky and the final release uses too much space for no reason.

interlaced
the image contains visible black lines, which often cause the video to be completely unwatchable. These black lines are visible mostly during movement on the image and are caused by incorrect field order. I won�t go into details explaining the reasons for this � it�s caused by different way of displaying frames and fields (half-frames) in the video, more details are available for example here. It�s highly recommended to not download any interlaced release.

cbr.audio
audio can be either CBR (constant bit rate), or VBR (variable bit rate). According to the scene rules, all releases should contain VBR audio, so any release with CBR is instantly nuked. Variable bit rate allows better quality, according to the current sound, while constant one sets the same quality for the whole movie, including the quiet parts. However, releases with AC3 audio almost always use CBR. It�s often hard to distinguish the difference between CBR and VBR for an untrained ear, so this nuke reason isn�t too serious if you don�t care about the rules.

bad.fps
bad frame rate. The frame rate should be close to the original framerate. Not a very common nuke reason, but it�s better to beware any release with this nuke.

oos, out.of.sync
out of sync, audio isn�t synced with video. Extremely annoying mistake which makes most of such release completely unwatchable. This happens very often with cams, telesyncs and telecines, which require a synchronization of audio and video from different source. Some releases are completely out of sync, while others have this problem only for a few seconds or minutes.

qpel.not.allowed
qpel or quarter pixel is a feature of modern encoding codecs such as H.264 which allows better and more efficient compression. Videos encoded with quarter-pixel precision motion vectors require up to twice as much processing power to encode, and 30-60% more processing power to decode. Thus, such releases often cause software problems or are completely unplayable at certain DVD players.

ghosting
annoying feature of a release, which result into ghost effect during every movement in the movie. It�s caused by inproper encoding and can�t be easily fixed.

field.shifted, dupe.frames, blended.frames, custom.quant.matrix
other mostly serious faults affecting the image, caused during encoding the final video.

divx.not.allowed, no.audio, missing.audio, get.rerip, get.proper
no need to explain these I guess.

0DAY NUKE reasons based on 0DAY ruleset 2010.1.

MU
MU stands for Minor Update. This term denotes an update of a previously released application within a certain time-period, the MU-period. Major updates are allowed regardless of the last time a previous version was released. In this case, the nfo must include some motivation for considering this a major update (security- and stability-critical hotfixes for instance). Typical major updates are defined as a version-change for the most significant number in the version, for instance v9.1 being updated to v10.0. Exceptions are possible, but must be noted in the nfo.
The minimum MU-period is 1 month

WII NUKE Reasons

scrubbed.dumps.not.allowed
WII games use “garbage” data to fill up the size of a DVD5/9. This data is useless and a waste of storage space and bandwith however it’s forbidden to release an ISO without this data (dump)

MP3 NUKE Reasons

low.audio.bitrate
It’s forbidden to use a minimum or maximum bitrate when encoding an MP3 release however the minimum bitrate for CBR MP3′s bought from an online store is 192kbit.

The following article will describe the process of distributing a preannouncement from the site it was issued on to the prechan it ended up.

As with every scene there will always be sub scenes. Even in the world of filesharing the definitions of being a “scener” widely vary. A scener might be someone who’s on a ranked site or he who’s part of a releasegroup where a racer on unranked sites is considered a “site-scener”. This also goes for the pre scene. Those with access to sitepre are considered elite while those on prenets are the average and those who are afiliated with p2p/public or echo are considered noobs.

This article is split in three sections matching above mentioned groups.

SitePRE
When a release is pred the directory containing the files is first uploaded to an FTP by a member of the releasegroup. The FTP uses a set of scripts (zipscript) to verify and index the release. A set of these scripts is called a sitebot. This bot will for example index the name, size and filecount of the release.
Next is issueing the actual !pre command where the release is made public and announced by an eggdrop bot which queries the sitebot and announces it in the site’s IRC channel, sitechan,  and addpre chan. The term addpre chan gives away that it’s a channel where pre’s are added and uses a uniform style. This makes it easier for bots to understand the information that passes by.

Example of a release that was pred being announced in the sitechan:

<SITEBOT>  [PRE-RELEASE] ==] MiSTAKE PRE [== Met.Het.Mes.Op.Tafel.S03E13.DUTCH.WS.PDTV.x264-MiSTAKE - (with 245MB in 20 Files) - [TV]

Example of the release being announced in the addpre chan:

<BOT1> !addpre Met.Het.Mes.Op.Tafel.S03E13.DUTCH.WS.PDTV.x264-MiSTAKE TV
<BOT2> !info Met.Het.Mes.Op.Tafel.S03E13.DUTCH.WS.PDTV.x264-MiSTAKE 245MB 20F

At this point the members of the site have noticed the announcement of the bot in the sitechan and the bots in the addpre chan have picked up the addpre signal.

PreNet
A PreNet is an IRC network that operates as a central hub where announcements relayed from above mentioned sites come together. Since each site has a couple affils it takes access to a lot of sites to make up the amount of releases you see passing by in the average prechan.
A PreNet is also the place where nukes are issued and rules are debated.
If you’re on a PreNet you have access to a feed which carries about every preannouncement made globally. Next up is the local part. The term local is used because owners of prebots relay the feed from a prenet to a local, private channel where they are alone with their prebot. This is where the prebot gets the info from which he outputs in a fancy way in the prechan you have access to.

P2P-Pre-Scene
Getting into sites and prenets takes some skill and especially the right contacts. People who don’t have these assets but still want to run a prebot can resort to echoing. Echoing is simply copying information from one chan or another. This behaviour is against the etiquette and will get you in trouble.
WebPreDB’s often use these sources which isn’t a real problem just that they contain more spam than the pure feed and are a bit slower. Sites like OrlyDB are known for echoing prechannels run by private trackers.

This can be best shown by a real life Example

NFOogle *searchengine that indexes some of below mentioned sites.

Xrel NFO: Yes, M3U/SFV: No Advanced search: Yes *german
NFOhump NFO: Yes, M3U/SFV: NO Advanced search: Yes
VCDQuality NFO: Yes, M3U/SFV: NO Advanced search: Yes
TheIsoNews NFO: No, M3U/SFV: NO Advanced search: No *defunct but the forums are still a great read.
M2V NFO: No, M3U/SFV: NO Advanced search: Yes *filenames
NLDupe NFO: No, M3U/SFV: NO Advanced search: No *dutch movies
Ludibira NFO: Yes, M3U/SFV: NO Advanced search: Yes *console only
console-news NFO: Yes, M3U/SFV: NO Advanced search: Yes *console only
NFODB.net.ru NFO: Yes, M3U/SFV: NO Advanced search: Yes *MP3 Only
0DAYKingz NFO: Yes, M3U/SFV: NO Advanced search: Yes
MP3Kingz NFO: Yes, M3U/SFV: NO Advanced search: Yes
PORNKingz NFO: Yes, M3U/SFV: NO Advanced search: Yes
SweNews NFO: Yes, M3U/SFV: NO Advanced search: Yes

History

In the early nineties security was hardly a part of a sceners routines unlike nowadays. With sitenames, group IRC channels and lists of members being openly distributed in nfo’s those days were clearly different. Some people ran private websites to communicate and store this information which later resulted in the opening of the big three public sites still known today:

www.orm.nu -> www.isonews.com/www.theisonews.com
www.nforce.nl/www.nfohump.com
www.vcdq.com

*www.orm.nu was started by members of ORIGIN/DEViANCE as stated in one of their NFO’s:

“Check out the ISO scene’s BEST news page at WWW.ORM.NU Team DVNiSO”

PRE Databases

For those of you who aren’t familiar with IRC (which is a real shame) and those who are looking for an easy GUI there are several webbased PRE databases:

Corrupt-Net NFO: Yes, M3U/SFV: Yes, Advanced search: Yes
Doopes NFO: No, M3U/SFV: NO Advanced search: Yes
Layer13 NFO: Yes, M3U/SFV: NO Advanced search: No
ORLYDB NFO: No, M3U/SFV: NO Advanced search: No

History

Since pre sources are becoming more and more public it was a small step to design a frontend for the SQL databases bots use to store their info. Since the distribution of NFO, SFV and M3U files was picked up by about every prenet the availability has vastly increased.

The tag is the name of the release. These release names give you information about the release instantly. More detailed information is written in the nfo file. Often these tags contain a lot of words and definitions which you may not understand. Below you can find definitions of tags.

PROPER:
Due to scene rules, whoever releases a certain release the first, has won that race. For example, when a group releases the CAM version of Titanic the first. If there is something “wrong” with the release (poor quality, out-of-sync, audio errors etc.) and another group has a better/correct version, it can release it and add PROPER to the release title to avoid being nuked. However, the source must be the same as the original release. For example: A poor quality CAM release by group A and group B releases their CAM release PROPER. A Telesync release doesn’t PROPER a CAM release, because the source is different. PROPER is the most subjective tag in the scene, and a lot of people will generally argue whether the PROPER is better than the original release. The reason for the PROPER should always be mentioned in the NFO.

REPACK:
If a group releases a bad rip, they can release a Repack. A Repack is a fixed version of the original release. It’s similar to PROPER but then done by the same group. Note that a Repack is different from a fix. A Fix will repair the original release whilst a repack is a new release.

Rerip:
A previous rip was bad, now it’s ripped again properly. Similar to repack.

READNFO:
When something important is mentioned in the NFO or as a replacement for PROPER, READNFO can be added to the release title.

Movies

CAM (Camera):
A cam is a theater rip usually done with a digital video camera. A mini tripod is sometimes used, but often this won’t be possible, so the camera may shake. Also seating placement isn’t always ideal, and it might be filmed from an angle. If cropped properly, this is hard to tell unless there’s text on the screen, but a lot of times these are left with triangular borders on the top and bottom of the screen. Sound is taken from the onboard microphone of the camera, and especially in comedies, laughter can often be heard during the film. Due to these factors picture and sound quality are usually quite poor, but sometimes we’re lucky, and the theater will be fairly empty and a fairly clear signal will be heard.

TS (Telesync):
A telesync has the same specs as a CAM, except it uses an external audio source (most likely an audio jack in the chair for hard of hearing people). A direct audio source does not ensure a good quality audio source, as a lot of background noise can interfere. A lot of the times a telesync is filmed in an empty cinema or from the projection booth with a professional camera, giving a better picture quality. Quality ranges drastically, check the sample before downloading the full release. A high percentage of Telesyncs are CAMs that have been mislabeled.

TC (Telecine):
A telecine machine copies the film digitally from the reels. Sound and picture should be quite good, but due to the equipment involved and cost telecines are fairly uncommon. Generally the film will be in correct aspect ratio, although 4:3 telecines have existed. TC should not be confused with TimeCode , which is a visible counter on screen throughout the film. Click here to read more about telecine.

SCR (Screener):
A pre VHS tape, sent to rental stores, and various other places for promotional use. A screener is supplied on a VHS tape, and is usually in a 4:3 (full screen) a/r, although letterboxed screeners are sometimes found. The main draw back is a “ticker” (a message that scrolls past at the bottom of the screen, with the copyright and anti-copy telephone number). Also, if the tape contains any serial numbers, or any other markings that could lead to the source of the tape, these will have to be blocked, usually with a black mark over the section. This is sometimes only for a few seconds, but unfortunately on some copies this will last for the entire film, and some can be quite big. Depending on the equipment used, screener quality can range from excellent if done from a MASTER copy, to very poor if done on an old VHS recorder thru poor capture equipment on a copied tape. Most screeners are transferred to VCD, but a few attempts at SVCD have occurred, some looking better than others.

DVDSCR (DVD Screener):
Same premise as a screener, but transferred off a DVD. Usually letterboxed , but without the extras that a DVD retail would contain. The ticker is not usually in the black bars, and will disrupt the viewing. If the ripper has any skill, a DVDscr should be very good. Usually transferred to SVCD or DivX/XviD.

WP (Workprint):
A workprint is a copy of a film which has not been finished yet. There can be missing scenes, music, and quality can range from excellent to very poor. Some WPs are very different from the final print (Men In Black is missing all the aliens, and has actors in their places) and others can contain extra scenes (Jay and Silent Bob). WP’s can be nice additions to the collection once a good quality final has been obtained.

Retail DVD:
DVD’s which are available in shops.

PAL / NTSC:
PAL and NTSC are two different video standards, the former being European, and the latter being American. PAL has a slightly taller screen (256 lines non-interlaced, non-overscanned) as opposed to NTSC (200 lines), so if you see the bottom portion of a program’s screen getting cut off on your American machine, chances are the program was written for PAL, and is running on your shorter NTSC screen. PAL and NTSC differences are somewhat less important to European users; since their machines default to PAL, running an NTSC program is no more than a minor annoyance having the screen only appear in the top portion of the display.

BluRay:
This is the highest quality rip you’re going find. Most of the time it is ripped into a HD format and presented in High Def Resolution (720i – 1080p). Please note that in order to play a HD video file, you will need a badass computer. Due to the nature of this resolution, there aren’t really many videos presented in this way.

Other important tags for movies / dvd’s

COMPLETE:
A release is COMPLETE when it’s a DVD5. When a dvd is COMPLETE, it didn’t need any adjustments and the video is therefore untouched.
Most dvd’s though are DVD9, so they need to be compressed to DVD5. DVD5 is much more wanted since all dvd players can read these dvd’s, and almost every dvd burner can burn them. DVD9 discs are less popular, they are more expensive and not many people can burn a DVD9.

LiMiTED:
A movie is LiMiTED when it has a limited theater run. Generally smaller films (such as art house films) are released as limited. The scene considers a movie limited when it has a generally opening in less than 300 UK theaters, or in less than 500 USA theaters. In the scene jargon, it’s usually called 300 UK screens, or 500 USA screens. Officially, it’s not the opening weekend’s number of theaters that counts, but the peak of the number of theaters. For example; when a movie has 275 UK screens in the opening weekend, and 1 week later it has 325 screens, it’s not limited.

STV:
STV stands for Straight To Video. These movies were never released in theaters, instead, they were immediately released on video/dvd. Therefore, a lot of sites do not allow these movies.

FESTiVAL:
This is a variation of STV/LiMiTED. A FESTiVAL is a movie which hasn’t been shown in a public theater, but has been shown on a filmfestival (such as Cannes Film Festival). An example of a FESTiVAL movie is Hot Tamale (imdb), which has not been in a public theater, but it was shown on the Newport Beach Film Festival.

iNTERNAL:
An internal release is done for several reasons. The most common reason is because it has already been released before, and with iNTERNAL in title, the release won’t be nuked. iNTERNAL’s are quite common. Also lower quality theater rips are done iNTERNAL so it doesn’t lower the reputation of the group. An iNTERNAL release is available as normal on the groups affiliate sites, but they can’t be traded to other sites without request from the site ops. Although a release is iNTERNAL, it still can be very popular. For mp3′s the interla-tag is different. For mp3 releases it’s releasetitle-year-Group_iNT. That way the internal release won’t be calculated into the group’s stats. This avoids mp3 groups from doing a lot of internal releases, since they would just do that to get better stats. Some groups rename iNTERNAL to iNT, since this much shorter.

Subbed:
If a release is subbed, it usually means it has hard encoded subtitles burned throughout the movie. These are generally in malaysian/chinese/thai etc, and sometimes there are two different languages, which can take up quite a large amount of the screen. SVCD and DVD support switchable subtitles, so some DVDRips and most DVD’s are released with switchable subs.

Unsubbed:
When a movie has been release subbed before, an unsubbed release may be released.

Custom.Subbed:
A release can also be custom subbed. Movies often are released earlier in the USA than in Europe. These movies mostly contain a few subtitles, the ones that are spoken in the USA. European groups can create custom subtitles and add these to the dvd(rip). For example, when Dutch subtitles were added to a NTSC DVDr: Madagascar.2005.Custom.NL.Subbed.NTSC.DVDr-Group. Off course, it’s not just European, also Japaneese movies can be subbed english for example.

Dubbed:
If a film is dubbed, it is a special version where the actors’ voices are in another language. Dubbed versions of English-language films are for people who don’t understand English very well. In some countries, dubbing is very common, for example Germany.

SE:
SE stands for Special Edition. Like the name says, it’s a special dvd edition of a movie. Often special editions contain extra material like deleted scenes, interviews, or a making-of.

DC:
DC stands for Director’s Cut. A director’s cut is a specially edited version of a movie that is supposed to represent the director’s own approved edit of the movie. It is often released some time after the original release of the film, where the original release was released in a version different from the director’s approved edit. ‘Cut’ is synonymous with ‘edit’ in this context.

Extended:
Sometimes movies are released again on DVD because now the movie is extended. They have put back deleted scenes. For example, E.T. was produced first in 1982 and years later it was brought on DVD again, but now digitally remastered and extended.

Digitally Remastered:
Digitally remastered means that an older not-digital movie has been re-editted, remastered and is released on DVD. Some really old movies look very bad compared to the new digital movies. Then they remaster it to make it look better, edit & recolor the video, etcetera. Remastering generally implies some sort of upgrade to a previous existing product, frequently designed to encourage people to buy a new version of something they already own.

Rated/Unrated:
Rated means a movie is censored, unrated logically means uncensored.

R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6 (Region Code):
A dvd is released in a certain geographical area, or region and it’s not viewable on a dvd player outside of that region. This was designed to stop people buying American dvd’s and watching them earlier in other countries, or for older films where world distribution is handled by different companies. A lot of players can either be hacked with a chip, or via a remote to disable this. The regions are:
Region 1 – U.S., Canada, U.S. Territories
Region 2 – Japan, Europe, South Africa, and Middle East (including Egypt)
Region 3 – Southeast Asia and East Asia (including Hong Kong)
Region 4 – Australia, New Zealand, Pacific Islands, Central America, Mexico, South America, and the Caribbean
Region 5 – Eastern Europe (Former Soviet Union), Indian subcontinent, Africa, North Korea, and Mongolia
Region 6 – Peoples Republic of China

Sources:
DVDrip: A rip of the final released DVD. If possible this is released pre retail (for example, Star Wars episode 2). The quality of DVDrips is very good. DVDrips are released in SVCD and DivX/XviD.

VHSRip:
Transferred off a retail VHS, mainly skating/sports videos and XXX releases.

TVRip: TV episode that is either capped from Network (capped using digital cable/satellite boxes are preferable) or PRE-AIR from satellite feeds sending the program around to networks a few days earlier (do not contain “dogs” but sometimes have flickers etc). PDTV is capped from a digital TV PCI card, generally giving the best results. VCD/SVCD/DivX/XviD rips are all supported by the TV scene.

Formats:

XViD/DivX (Digital Video Express):
DivX is a format designed for multimedia platforms. It uses two codecs, one low motion, one high motion. Most older films were encoded in low motion only, and they have problems with high motion too. A method known as SBC (Smart Bit-rate Control) was developed which switches codecs at the encoding stage, making a much better print. The format is anamorphic and the bitrate/resolution are interchangeable. The majority of proper DivX rips (not Re-Encs) are taken from DVDs, and generally up to 2hours in good quality is possible per disc. Various codecs exist, most popular at the moment is XviD. The formal most popular codec was DivX.

CVD:
CVD is a combination of VCD and SVCD formats, and is generally supported by a majority of DVD players. It supports MPEG2 bit-rates of SVCD, but uses a resolution of 352×480(ntsc) as the horizontal resolution is generally less important. Currently no groups release in CVD.

Music

TV: Audio from television material
Radio: Audio from radio material
WEB: Audio downloaded from an online music store
VLS: Vinyl Single (1-2 tracks)
EP: Vinyl Maxi-single (2-5 tracks)
LP: Vinyl Full-length Album
CDS: CD Single (1-2 tracks)
CDM: CD Maxi-single (2-5 tracks)
CDR: CD-Recordable (CD-R)
DVD: Audio from a DVD. Often cabaret shows or concert/music dvd’s.
Promo: Promotional
XX: Imported
RETAiL: Retail
Liveset: A record of a DJ mixing live. Mostly recorded using:
- DAB: Digital Audio Broadcasting is a system used to broadcast radio programmes.
- SAT: Music broadcasted via satellite channels.
- CABLE: Music broadcasted by radio channels via cable radio.

Labelcode/Catnumber:
This is a code which is like a unique code for every music cd/vinyl/etc. The code isn’t just some number, but it contains values which are recognisable. For example: Catnumber: WNRD2371 is a cd from WieNerwoRlD Ltd.

Clean:
The music is censored. Generally sexual or violent words, which are replaced by ‘bleeps’ or stripped.
Explicit: The music is not censored.

TV

HDTV (High Definition Televison):
Digital recording from a source stream at either 1080i or 720p at a bitrate from 19,39mbps or higher.

PDTV (Pure Digital Television):
Other resolution digital recordings from source streams at a bitrate of 10+mbps or higher. It is a label given to files that were ripped directly from a purely digital source, having less resolution than HDTV. This is accomplished by using a TV tuner card capable of receiving Digital Video Broadcasts or C-Band.

SDTV (Standard Digital Television):
Digital recording or capture from a source stream at any resolution with bitrate under 10mbps.This includes DirecTiVo but also captures from digisat or digicable with analog capture cards.

TVRip (Analoge TV Rip):
Recorded from analog TV, lowest quality of all TV rips.

Season/Episode code:
A code which shows the season and episode of a tv show.
For example: S01E12 is season 1 episode number 12.

DVB (Digital Video Broadcast):
The standard for direct broadcast television in Europe and the US Based on MPEG2 Compression.

DSR (Digital Satellite Rip):
Recorded from Digital Satellite, quality is similar to PDTV.

PPV (Pay Per View television):
Pay television programming for which viewers pay a separate fee for each program ordered.

0DAY/APPS

AIO
AIO stands for All-In-One, meaning an all-in-one software pack. For example: Microsoft Office, which contains Word, Frontpage, Publisher, Access etc.

RTM
RTM means Release To Manufacturing. This release is leaked before it’s available in stores. A RTM version of a software title is the final retail version, the one that you will be seeing in stores.

VLM
VLM stands for Volume License Key. This means that the cracked application is already licensed, and therefore doesn’t require an activation after installation.

Crack Type
For example crack or keygen.

PSP

UMDRip
Yhis applies only to Playstation Portable (PSP) games, and it means that some stuff was ripped from the original game because it was not required or was ripped to save space. For example languages or movie files.

UMDMovie
The Playstation Portable (PSP) is also capable of playing movies. Though a PSP can’t playback DVD’s or CD’s, only UMD discs. So movies for the PSP get released on UMD discs.

PSXPSP
This is a PSX (Playstation 1) game playable on a PSP (Playstation Portable) using custom PSP firmware.

USA, JAP, EUR
Especially PSP releases, but also other console releases, are sometimes tagged as USA, JAP and EUR. These are alternative regions, and they replace PAL and NTSC. USA are off course the United States of America, JAP is Japan and EUR is Europe.

256MS, 512MS, 1GB and 2GB
These tags only apply to PSP releases, and they show the required size of an UMD disc. UMD discs can contain up to 2 gigabytes. When a game is 100mb it fits on every UMD disc, but when a game is 900mb it will only fit on 1GB and higher UMD discs.

VCD

VCD is an mpeg1 based format, with a constant bitrate of 1150kbit at a resolution of 352×240 (NTCS). VCDs are generally used for lower quality transfers (CAM/TS/TC/Screener(VHS)/TVrip(analogue) in order to make smaller file sizes, and fit as much on a single disc as possible. Both VCDs and SVCDs are timed in minutes, rather than MB, so when looking at an mpeg, it may appear larger than the disc capacity, and in reality u can fit 74min on a CDR74.

SVCD

SVCD is an mpeg2 based (same as DVD) which allows variable bit-rates of up to 2500kbits at a resolution of 480×480 (NTSC) which is then decompressed into a 4:3 aspect ratio when played back. Due to the variable bit-rate, the length you can fit on a single CDR is not fixed, but generally between 35-60 Mins are the most common. To get a better SVCD encode using variable bit-rates, it is important to use multiple “passes”. this takes a lot longer, but the results are far clearer.

XVCD/XSVCD

These are basically VCD/SVCD that don’t obey the “rules”. They are both capable of much higher resolutions and bit-rates, but it all depends on the player to whether the disc can be played. X(S)VCD are total non-standards, and are usually for home-ripping by people who don’t intend to release them.

DivX / XviD

DivX is a format designed for multimedia platforms. It uses two codecs, one low motion, one high motion. most older films were encoded in low motion only, and they have problems with high motion too. A method known as SBC (Smart Bit-rate Control) was developed which switches codecs at the encoding stage, making a much better print. The format is Ana orphic and the bit-rate/resolution are interchangeable. Due to the higher processing power required, and the different codecs for playback, its unlikely we’ll see a DVD player capable of play DivX for quite a while, if at all. There have been players in development which are supposedly capable, but nothing has ever arisen. The majority of PROPER DivX rips (not Re-Encs) are taken from DVDs, and generally up to 2hours in good quality is possible per disc. Various codecs exist, most popular being the original Divx3.11a and the new XviD codecs.

CVD

CVD is a combination of VCD and SVCD formats, and is generally supported by a majority of DVD players. It supports MPEG2 bit-rates of SVCD, but uses a resolution of 352×480(ntsc) as the horizontal resolution is generally less important. Currently no groups release in CVD.

DVD-R

Is the recordable DVD solution that seems to be the most popular (out of DVD-RAM, DVD-R and DVD+R). it holds 4.7gb of data per side, and double sided discs are available, so discs can hold nearly 10gb in some circumstances. SVCD mpeg2 images must be converted before they can be burnt to DVD-R and played successfully. DVD>DVDR copies are possible, but sometimes extras/languages have to be removed to stick within the available 4.7gb.

copied from vcdquality.com

If you’re a hardcore scener, you can probably leave this page right now, there’s no use in reading following paragraphs for you. However, there are also many people who are not so familiar with a scene slang and that’s why we decided to collect a list of most common nuke reasons and explain them for you. This way, you will always know what to expect from a release which is nuked.

These nukes are based on TDX 2005.

stolen.from.p2p – lately a very popular and common nuke reason. This basically means that the scene group which pred the release stole it from another source – specifically a peer to peer network (p2p) in this case. In most cases, this means a private BitTorrent tracker, which obtained and released the copy of a movie faster than any other scene source. This nuke reason will not affect your viewer’s experience and many sceners consider it useless as we basically steal the movies anyway.

stolen.src – stolen source. Similar or same as the above nuke reason. Scene groups can steal the video or audio also from each other, apart from stealing from peer to peer networks.

bad.res – bad image resolution. The scene rules define allowed image resolutions and their aspect ratios. If a movie doesn’t fit in these rules, it means the image will be probably malformed in a certain way. Many advanced video players allow to change the image resolution, so this can be sometimes fixed at your computer.

bad.ar – bad aspect ratio. A similar reason to the above one. Each video was originally filmed and released in a specific aspect ratio (horizontal vs. vertical side). The most common AR is 2.35:1 which is for example a resolution of 640×272 pixels. Bad aspect ratio leads to inproportional image, where characters appear to be either too wide or, more often, too tall. This can be also fixed with some media players.

dupe – dupe means simply a dupe. The nuked release was already released by another group earlier, so the nuked one is basically useless, doubled. This doesn’t really matter if you don’t care about the strict scene rules.

undersized – a release is nuked for being undersized when it doesn’t fully use the capacity of one or two CDs. This means that the final rip is for example 680 MB, while it could be 700 MB and offer a better quality of image and audio. Once again, this is not a serious deal unless it’s undersized by hundreds of megabytes.

oversized – guess what.

bad.crop, overcropped – movies on DVD contain black parts of the image above and below the actual video. In order to decrease the final size and offer the best possible quality, these black parts must be removed before encoding and releasing in xvid. Sometimes, scene groups don’t properly remove / crop these parts and it means that the image misses top or bottom part, therefore you don’t see the whole scene. Cropping is often used also for removing watermarks or hardcoded subtitles, but it still means a serious loss of the image. The other, not so common extreme, is when a group forgets to remove these black boxes.

bad.ivtc, no.ivtc – quite a common nuke reason which affects mostly lower-quality releases. IVTC means “inverse telecine” and it’s basically a process of converting a movie (usually PAL) with high FPS (30 frames per second) to lower FPS (for example 24) in order to save space and offer better image quality. This conversion often goes wrong (bad.ivtc) or completely lacks (no.ivtc, lazy sceners)). As a result, the image appears to be jerky and the final release uses too much space for no reason.

interlaced – the image contains visible black lines, which often cause the video to be completely unwatchable. These black lines are visible mostly during movement on the image and are caused by incorrect field order. I won’t go into details explaining the reasons for this – it’s caused by different way of displaying frames and fields (half-frames) in the video, more details are available for example here. It’s highly recommended to not download any interlaced release.

cbr.audio – audio can be either CBR (constant bit rate), or VBR (variable bit rate). According to the scene rules, all releases should contain VBR audio, so any release with CBR is instantly nuked. Variable bit rate allows better quality, according to the current sound, while constant one sets the same quality for the whole movie, including the quiet parts. However, releases with AC3 audio almost always use CBR. It’s often hard to distinguish the difference between CBR and VBR for an untrained ear, so this nuke reason isn’t too serious if you don’t care about the rules.

bad.fps – bad frame rate. The frame rate should be close to the original framerate. Not a very common nuke reason, but it’s better to beware any release with this nuke.

mislabeled – a release trying to look like a better quality rip. A good example would be an R5 rip from Russian video source released as dvdrip – the difference isn’t that big in this case and scene groups always get more props for releasing dvdrips. The another case can be a typo or wrong year in the release name.

grp.req – a nuke requested by the release group. Happens when a scene group releases something and realize it’s completely wrong, not working or simply bad, so they request a nuke.

oos, out.of.sync – out of sync, audio isn’t synced with video. Extremely annoying mistake which makes most of such release completely unwatchable. This happens very often with cams, telesyncs and telecines, which require a synchronization of audio and video from different source. Some releases are completely out of sync, while others have this problem only for a few seconds or minutes.

bad.pack – bad packing. The group didn’t pack their release properly, according to scene rules. This means they either forgot to pack it into 15/20/50 MB RARs or it’s completely impossible to unpack it.

invalid.proper – proper is a release fixing other, previously nuked release. When a certain group releases proper and the first release is actually fine, the new one becomes nuked for invalid proper.

qpel.not.allowed – qpel or quarter pixel is a feature of modern encoding codecs such as H.264 which allows better and more efficient compression. Videos encoded with quarter-pixel precision motion vectors require up to twice as much processing power to encode, and 30-60% more processing power to decode. Thus, such releases often cause software problems or are completely unplayable at certain DVD players.

ghosting – annoying feature of a release, which result into ghost effect during every movement in the movie. It’s caused by inproper encoding and can’t be easily fixed.

field.shifted, dupe.frames, blended.frames, custom.quant.matrix – other mostly serious faults affecting the image, caused during encoding the final video.

divx.not.allowed, no.audio, missing.audio, get.rerip, get.proper – no need to explain these I guess…